chemistry of soil potassium ppt
Soil contains a large number of microbial species as well as other organisms that together form a highly complex ecosystem. 2KHCO3 K2CO3 + CO2 + H2O A student was asked to check the purity of a sample of potassium hydrogencarbonate. 2016J01100), and the Project Funded by China Postdoral Science Foundation (No. Thus, nine elements (hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, chlorine, sodium, magnesium, calcium, potassium, and carbon) make up 99 percent of seawater, though most of the 94 naturally occurring elements haveâ¦ The experimental station is located in the Zudun township of Nanping in the Fujian Province of China (27Â°24Ê¹N, 118Â°33Ê¹E). Farmers need to know the pH of their soil since plants will only grow in a specific pH range. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, the major sources of acid rain. 2015M580560). Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high-throughput sequencing technology analyses were used to investigate heavy metals content and bacterial composition in rhizosphere soils. For each sample, three replicates were performed. Healthy and asymptomatic plants in nature are colonized by a rich diversity of microbes, with the complex plant-associated microbial community referred to as a second genome of the plant because of its effect on plant growth and productivity [42â43]. Nitrilotriacetic acid is a tricarboxylic acid and a NTA. Species annotation was performed using the Silva database (http://www.arb-silva.de) . It has a role as a nephrotoxic agent and a carcinogenic agent. The Statistical Package for the GraphPad Prism version 5.1 and the Data Processing System (DPS) version 7.05 were used for statistical analysis. Alpha diversity was calculated to determine the complexity of species diversity. Online biology test questions and answers pdf, exam, quiz, test high school with answers. However, soil degradation and substantial quality and yield decrease have been observed in the long-term monoculture of tea bushes, and have become key problems in the sustainable development of tea orchards . Writing â original draft, Affiliations Our results also showed that treatment with organic fertilizer significantly decreased contents of Cd, Pb and As in tea leaves (Fig 3). No, Is the Subject Area "Soil chemistry" applicable to this article? In our RDA analysis, Acidibacter were found to be highly associated with soil pH. Sustainable agriculture is an important global issue. Some specific microorganism have the ability to adsorb heavy metal [40â41]. The chemical fertilizer treated samples (NorS) were positively related to the cadmium (Cd), Cuprum (Cu) and plumbum (Pb). Soil pH was determined using a glass electrode pH meter (1:2.5 soil to water suspensions). We speculate that long-term application of chemical fertilizers decreased soil pH, promoted the proliferation of some specific microbes and activated the heavy metal ions in soil, further deteriorated the physicochemical properties and quality of tea. Following quality filtering and chimera removal , the effective tags were used to perform OTU clustering and species annotation. Our data are in agreement with the findings of Sun et al. We found that the bacterial composition of OrgS and CKOrgS soil samples belonged to the same group based on the principal component analysis. Take A Sneak Peak At The Movies Coming Out This Week (8/12) New Movie Releases This Weekend: February 19th â February 21st The use of organic fertilizers can enhance crop yield and soil properties while restraining pests and diseases. In addition, while long-term application of chemical fertilizers could lead to serious soil acidification, nutritional imbalance, and deterioration of the rhizosphere micro-ecological environment, further increased the activity of heavy metal ions in soil. We found that the contents of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd, As) were lower in soil and plant samples under organic fertilizer treatment compared to those treated with chemical fertilizer. Key Laboratory of Crop Ecology and Molecular Physiology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China, It shows excellent removal performance, cost effectiveness, and the substantial option of adsorbent materials. In this study, we found that N, P and K contents were not significantly different between organic and chemical fertilizer treatments. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 8(5):381-391. This work was supported by by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. Biology Questions and Answers Form 2; More than 5000 biology questions and answers to help you study biology. Tea orchards with long-term organic or chemical fertilizer treatment showed significant differences in soil chemical properties (Fig 2). The contents of these metals were determined by Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, PerkinElmer NexION 300X, U.S.A), using parameters listed in Table 1. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217018.t001. Data curation, A detailed list of topics to be studied is described below in the "Course Content Outline." The instructor will use a variety of teaching methods including lecture, demonstrations, laboratory exercises, and written assignments (both in-class and homework). We have previously shown that long-term tea cultivation with nitrogen fertilizers altered the bacterial composition of soil and significantly decreased soil pH and microbial metabolic activity, resulting in a reduction of beneficial bacteria [1, 4â5]. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Roles Our previous studies have found tea orchards soil pH, tea amino acids, and phenolic compounds significantly decreased with increasing years of monoculturing [1, 5]. Researchers have found that tea cultivated with bio-organic fertilizers has superior color and taste compared to tea treated with chemical fertilizers [10â11]. Furthermore, Streptomycetales can act as PGPR (rhizosphere growth-promoting bacteria) to reduce plant disease and are associated with plant disease suppression in many soils [53â54]. Key Laboratory for Genetics, Breeding and Multiple Utilization of Crops, Ministry of Education / College of Crop Science, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China. Citation: Lin W, Lin M, Zhou H, Wu H, Li Z, Lin W (2019) The effects of chemical and organic fertilizer usage on rhizosphere soil in tea orchards. These results provide a promising strategy to tea orchards by treatment with organic fertilizers. With increased availability of chemical fertilizers since the late 1970s and rise of labor costs since the 1980s, the utilization of organic fertilizer has dramatically declined [26, 28]. However, the long-term application of organic fertilizer was able to alleviate some of this negative effect. At the same time, non-rhizosphere soils were also collected from the organic (CKOrgS) and chemical (CKNorS) fertilizer treated tea orchards. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. Is the Subject Area "Fertilizers" applicable to this article? The two different planting and management patterns were the long-term organic fertilizer (mainly contain rape cake and sheep dung) ecological tea garden and the conventional nitrogen fertilizer management tea garden. Match each unit to the correct definition. Our previous study have shown the plantâmicrobe interactions contribute to the increased acidity and create a new environment to mediate changes in the microbial community structure in the R. pseudostellariae rhizosphere under continuous monoculture regimes . The amino acid content was measured using the ninhydrin colorimetric methods. Heckmann LH, Friberg N (2005) Macroinvertebrate community response to pulse exposure with the insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin using in-stream mesocosms. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of long-term use of chemical and organic fertilizers on tea and rhizosphere soil properties in tea orchards. In this study, the classified sequences were affiliated with 24 bacterial phyla among the treatment groups. Long-term organic fertilizer treatment also had a positive effect on non-rhizosphere soil. broad scope, and wide readership â a perfect fit for your research every time. Measurement of acidity of Rain 4. In conclusion, organic fertilizer can help to shape the microbial composition and recruit beneficial bacteria into the rhizosphere of tea, leading to improved tea quality and reduced heavy metals content in rhizosphere soil and tea leaves. A variety of methods, including chemical precipitation, biological phosphorus elimination, and adsorption, have been described to effectively eliminate phosphorus (P) in the form of phosphate (PO43â) from wastewater sources. Water (H 2 O) is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue.It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" and the "solvent of life." TN, TP, and TK were determined using Kjeldahl digestion, sodium carbonate fusion, and NaOH melts flamer methods, respectively . Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. In recent years, soil acidification has become a serious problem for modern agriculture in China . Add a named indicator (1). Moreover, the effects of long-term use of organic fertilizer on rhizosphere bacterial composition and heavy metals in tea gardens have not been carefully investigated. The variable regions 3 to 4 (V3âV4) were amplified with the specific primers 338F/806R (338F, 5â-ACTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCA-3â; 806R, 5â-GGACTACHVGGGTWTCTA AT-3â). Note the volume of acid added (1). Should perivascular infiltration occur, I.V. Project administration, * E-mail: email@example.com (WL); firstname.lastname@example.org (ZL), Roles The significant decrease in beneficial plant bacteria was also observed in the rhizosphere soil of continuously monocultured tea . Organic fertilizers are derived from natural sources (e.g., livestock and poultry excreta, plant residues, biogas residue, and agricultural by-products), and their usage can have a positive impact on pollution. The rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils of tea trees were taken from each experimental plot by a 5-point sampling method. Supervision, (a) Some plants grow well in acidic soil while others prefer basic soil. The PCR reactions were conducted in a 50 Î¼L mixture system, using TransStart Fastpfu DNA Polymerase (TransGen Biotechnology, Beijing, U.S.A). b) Add a measured volume of potassium hydroxide solution to a flask using a pipette (or measuring cylinder) (1). The abundance of Acidibacter, Catenulispora, Burkholderia-Paraburkholderia, Gemmatirosa, Nitrospira, Candidatus_Solibacter, Rhizomicrobium and Sorangium were found to be highly associated with soil pH. Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Camellia sinensis, commonly known as tea plant, is a mountainous crop and an important agricultural product for many farmers in China. Yes Differences among the treatments were calculated and statistically analyzed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the LSD multiple range tests (p < 0.05). Previous studies reported that increasing years of consecutive monoculturing resulted in a significant increase in abundance of pathogens and a decrease in beneficial microorganisms in the rhizosphere of plants [47â48]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217018.g004. The shared number of exclusive OTUs between OrgS and NorS were 1022 (60.19%). Acid rain is rain that is more acidic than normal. It is well known that acidification can increase the mobility of heavy metals into the soil where they could be taken up by plants [35â36]. The relative abundance of these bacterial orders varied among the different soil samples. Injections of calcium chloride are accompanied by peripheral vasodilatation as well as a local "burning" sensation and there may be a moderate fall in blood pressure. Soil chemical properties analysis included pH, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total potassium (TK), available nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP), and available potassium (AK). Observed in tea leaves were roasted, dried and ground into a fine powder testing a value... [ 10â11 ] significantly decreased Cu, Pb and as in tea leaves of Sun et.. Province of China ( 27Â°24Ê¹N, 118Â°33Ê¹E ) PCoA accounted for 45.93 and... The authors have declared that No competing interests exist response to pulse exposure the... 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Some of this negative effect long-term organic fertilizer significantly increased Shannonâs diversity indices in rhizosphere soil sample three!