Dec.22

sugar maple identification

There are thirteen native maple species in North America (Table 3-1). One exotic maple, Norway maple (Acer platanoides), is commonly planted as an ornamental and street tree and will attain tapable size. Facts About Sugar Maple Trees. Like sugar and black maple, red maple is shade tolerant and is found in both even-aged and uneven-aged forests. Sugar Maple Tree. It normally grows 80 to 110 feet in height, but 150-foot specimens have been known. Canada; The sugar maple tree may grow to a height of 40 metres (130 feet). Plantations of sugar maple have also been established with the intent of developing efficient, productive sugar bushes. Striped maple is a small slender tree which rarely attains tapable size. If you are thinking of planting sugar maple trees, you probably already know that sugar maple are among the best-loved trees on the continent. Its use as an ornamental and street tree, at least in urban areas, has been discontinued in recent years because the wood of silver maple is very brittle and often breaks in severe wind, snow or ice storms. Black and sugar maples begin growth later in the spring than red or silver maple. Introduction: Sugar maple, with its beautiful form and brilliant, multicolored display of fall color, is a popular shade tree in eastern North America.It is known for its quality wood and abundant sugar. Red maple is one of the most abundant and widespread hardwood trees in North America (Figure 3.8). Red maple is commonly tapped in certain geographic areas, particularly in the southern and western portions of the commercial maple range. Fruits mature in fall. sugar maple Aceraceae Acer saccharum Marshall symbol: ACSA3 Leaf: Opposite, simple and palmately veined, 3 to 6 inches long, 5 delicately rounded lobes, entire margin; green above, paler below. Restricted to the Pacific Coast, this tree is the … To do this, begin by counting lobes of leaves. Wide, irregular strips: The sugar maple has dark grayish-brown bark with wide, vertical strips that curl outward at the edges. Flower/Fruit: Small greenish yellow flowers in early spring. Like all maples, the leaves, buds and twigs of all four are attached in pairs opposite each other along the branches. The tree likes Sun to half-shade,brown leaf margins indicate a lack of water. Sugar Maples can be identified based on the following characteristics: This is the geographic area of greatest abundance of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and black maple (Acer nigrum), the two most preferred and most commonly tapped maple species. Look closely at the color of the leaves. Black maple is more likely to be found along moist river bottoms. Twigs are smooth and reddish-brown with sharp-pointed winter buds. The two most common maples are the sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and the red maple (Acer rubrum). Flower: Light yellow-green, small, clustered, hanging from a long, slender (1 to 3 inch) stem, appearing with or slightly before … Sugar maple trees have 5-lobed leaves (3 large lobes and 2 small lobes). Suffers from salt, drought, and air pollution. Four states have picked this tree as their state tree – New York, West Virginia, Wisconsin and Vermont – and it is also the national tree of Canada. Mature leaves have a whitish appearingunderside. When compared to sugar, black and red maple, silver maple is a distinctly fourth choice for sugaring for several reasons. Pests include borers and cottony maple scale. Silver and sugar maple are easy to tell apart by leaf, buds, and growth habit. A fourth maple species, silver maple (Acer saccharinum), is sometimes tapped, particularly in roadside operations, and is often confused with red maple. While most of these species are probably tapped to some extent, at least by hobbyists, sugar and black maple, along with red maple (Acer rubrum), provide most of the commercial sap. Black maple, on the other hand, occupies a much smaller natural range (Figure 3.7). Sugar Maple ( Acer saccharum) Lobes pointed, but leaf margins smooth (not serrated) between points, with U-shaped regions in larger spaces between lobe tips. Uses: Veneer, lumber, furniture, cabinets, flooring, pulp General Natural Range: Minnesota south to Arkansas. at the location and the soil should be sandy to loamy. Sugar sand or niter is the salt that precipitates during the evaporation process. The Tree is a deciduous tree, it will be up to 40 m (131 ft) high. Young trees up to 4-8 inches with smooth gray bark. Learn how to identify sugar maple trees to make maple syrup. Sugar maple or Acer saccharum. Also the Red Maple has a bitter sap as compared to the Sugar Maple. Maple trees are usually grown in gardens as landscaping plants, owing to their beauty and their extensive branching system. Acer saccharum identification sugar maple tree branches Woody plants Jerry Jenkins, White Creek, N.Y. Like the red maple, silver maple is a relatively short-lived tree when compared to the sugar or black maple, living perhaps. Sugar and black maple are very similar species and unquestionably the most preferred species for producing maple products, primarily because of their high sugar content. Also, all four produce a fruit called a samara (or double samara), which is a pair of connected, winged seeds. The sap of Norway maple is not commonly used to produce maple syrup. Red maple's bark is normally dark brown, whereas box elder and Norway maple bark is more grayish. This is a blog about tree branches: what they look like, how they develop, how they differ between species, and how you can use them to identify trees in winter. Identifying a silver maple (Table 3.2, Figure 3.5) is done from the leaves by observing the 5 lobes with the sides of the terminal lobe diverging toward the tip, the paired opposite arrangement of the leaves, the presence of fine teeth along the margin but not on the inner sides of the sinuses and the silvery white underside; from the bark of older trees by the trunk's shaggy appearance; from the twigs by observing the paired opposite arrangement of the buds, the relatively short blunt, rounded, red terminal bud and the presence of a fetid or foul odor when the twig is bruised or scraped; and from the fruit by observing its V-shape and size. Sugar maple Leaf: 3 to 6" opposite, simple leaf with 3 to 5 lobes; excellent fall color - yellow, orange and red tones. Under natural conditions, silver maple is primarily a bottomland and floodplain species, where it may occur in pure stands but is more commonly found associated with other bottom species such as American elm, sweetgum, pin oak, swamp white oak, eastern cottonwood, sycamore, and/or green ash. Identification Of Common North American Woods. Sugar and black maple have the highest sap sugar content of any of the native maples. The way to tell Red Maple and Sugar Maple apart is by the bark. This is the geographic area of greatest abundance of sugar maple ( Acer saccharum) and black maple ( Acer nigrum ), … The sugar maple (Acer saccharum) is a common tree in northeastern North America, prized for its wood, its brilliant fall foliage and its sap for maple syrup in the spring. Means of Distinguishing Similar Species : Wood is typically lighter in color than red maple. Unfortunately, the names of the two trees quickly became confused in the horticultural literature. On young trees light gray to brown and somewhat smooth; on older trees gray to almost black with irregular plates or scales. Common North American Maple Species . Neither of these species is commonly tapped. The tree produces a dense, round, compact crown when grown in the open and is used quite extensively as a shade or ornamental tree. Probably no other species of forest tree, certainly no hardwood, can thrive on a wider variety of soil types and sites. These four species share several characteristics in common. It is not unusual to find many trees in a sugar bush well in excess of 3 percent, and occasionally higher. There only slight overlap in habitat: silver maple usually grows closer to water and sugar maple on well-drained sites. Sugar and black maple are particularly attractive as sugar trees because of their high sap sugar content and the late date at which they begin growth in the spring. Slender, shiny, usually reddish in color; terminal buds. Similar to sugar maple but usually darker and more deeply grooved or furrowed. sugar maple Aceraceae Acer saccharum Marshall symbol: ACSA3 Leaf: Opposite, simple and palmately veined, 3 to 6 inches long, 5 delicately rounded lobes, entire margin; green above, paler below. If these species occur in a sugarbush it is important to be able to identify them. There is a moderately deep U-shaped notch between the lobes. The light-colored wood is used for furniture, flooring, cabinets, charcoal and firewood. … Identical or Nearly Identical Species: Black maple Both species have been planted extensively as roadside trees which are often tapped as part of a sugaring operation. Norway Maple is frequent in urban areas where it is planted as a street tree or invasive in vacant lots. Other popular varieties of maple trees for gardens are the Amur Maple (Acer ginnala), Big Leaf Maple (Acer macrophyllum), and the Hedge Maple tree (Acer campestre). Trees planted by colonial settlers survive to this day, often with large, gnarly trunks and deeply fissured bark. Nevertheless, large silver maple street trees are numerous in many areas and these are sometimes tapped as part of a sugaring operation. This is a blog about tree branches: what they look like, how they develop, how they differ between species, and how you can use them to identify trees in winter. The sugar maple (Acer saccharum) is a common tree in northeastern North America, prized for its wood, its brilliant fall foliage and its sap for maple syrup in the spring.Like the white ash, the sugar maple is … Norway Maple is frequent in urban areas where it is planted as a street tree or invasive in vacant lots. For this reason, it has been widely planted as an ornamental and street tree. This week’s tree is easy to identify by its twig. Sugar maple trees have dark green leaves that turn red, orange, or yellow in the fall. Sugar and black maple both grow in the shade of other trees (they are shade tolerant), and trees of many different ages (sizes) are often found in a forest. Maple Tree Identification. Each of the largest three lobes has one to several sharp-pointed tips. https://www.mortonarb.org/trees-plants/tree-plant-descriptions/ Because of its fast growth rate, however, mature trees can achieve diameters in excess of 3 feet and heights in excess of 100 feet. Throughout much of the commercial maple region, however, most maple producers will not tap silver maple. The leaves are bright green and the underside is light green. Similar to red maple but bruised or scraped bark has a very fetid or foul odor. The high sugar content of the Sugar Maple’s sap makes it ideal for tapping. East to the Appalachian Mountains. Healthy sugar and black maple trees growing in overstocked uneven-aged or even-aged stands can be expected to achieve tapable size in 40 to 60 years, depending on overall site quality. Its rapid growth and ability to thrive on a wide variety of sites have resulted in its widespread planting as ornamental and street trees which are often tapped as part of a sugaring operation. Table 3-2 contains a descriptive comparison and Figures 3.2 through 3.5 illustrate characteristic leaves, bark, twigs, and fruits of sugar, black, red and silver maple. The sugar content is 2x that of other maple trees in sugar maples which means less boiling down. Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum) is a deciduous tree known for brilliant fall colors and sap that is the primary source for maple syrup.For over 300 years, the Sugar Maple has played an important part in the diet of many Americans. Silver maple is among the fastest growing hardwood species commonly planted in eastern North America, certainly the fastest growing maple. Birches have pores wider than the rays. Sugar maple occurs naturally throughout most of the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada (Figure 3.6). On good sites with little competition from other trees, silver maple diameter growth may approach 1/2 inch per year (rates as high as 1 inch per year have been recorded). Identification of the Sugar Maple: Like other maples, Sugar Maples have opposite, lobed leaves. Based on the results of a study in a New Jersey natural area, there is concern that in forests managed for native vegetation, Norway Maple will reproduce more vigorously than the native Sugar Maple, and therefore, may out compete Sugar Maple … The sugar maple (Acer saccharum) (hard maple, rock maple) is one of our largest and finest forest trees, growing to a height of 80 feet with a diameter of two or more feet. Third, like red maple, the evaporation of sap from some silver maples produces an excessive amount of sugar sand. If you are thinking of planting sugar maple trees, you probably already know that sugar maple are among the best-loved trees on the continent. Red Maple ( Acer rubrum) Buds conspicuous, plump, rounded, and red; side buds as large as terminal buds, and angled outward. Similar to sugar maple with, perhaps, a slightly larger seed. In addition, when the sap of some red maples is processed, an excessive amount of sugar sand is produced. 2-6 inches wide; 3lobed (occasionally weakly 5-lobed); sharply V-shaped sinuses; small sharp teeth along. It is most easily identified by the opposite paired arrangement of its leaves and branches and its 3lobed leaf with coarse teeth. Striped maple (Acer pensylvanicum) and mountain maple (Acer spicatum) are two other native maples that are found growing within the commercial maple range (Figures 3.10 and 3.11). Sugar Maple Tree Identification Sugar maple trees can grow to be 100 feet tall. The space between the five pointed lobes of sugar maple leaves is U-shaped with a rounded base. Photo © Yann Kemper, Public Domain. Mountain maple is essentially a shrub. The fruits are paired samaras. 5-7 inches wide; deeply clefted; 5-lobed with the sides of the terminal lobe diverging toward the tip; light green upper surface and a silvery white underside; leaf margin with fine teeth (but not the inner edges of the sinuses). Both species are relatively long lived, capable of living well beyond 200 years, with trunk diameters greater than 30 inches and heights greater than 100 feet. Red Maple Tree Sugar Maples & Insect Problems. A somewhat shiny, brownish, slender, relatively smooth twig with. Horseshoe-shaped double-winged fruit with parallel or slightly divergent wings. Flower: Light yellow-green, small, clustered, hanging from a long, slender (1 to 3 inch) stem, appearing with or slightly before the leaves in early spring. Uses: Veneer, lumber, furniture, cabinets, flooring, pulp Scientific Name:  Acer saccharum East to the Appalachian Mountains. It is important to emphasize that good, high-quality maple syrup can be made from red maple sap. Sugar maple leaves will have a dark green color on the outside, and a lighter green on the underside. It is commercially important as a source of maple syrup, maple sugar, and hardwood lumber useful in furniture manufacture … They should not be confused with the desirable maple species when performing management practices such as thinning or release cuts. It has a dense crown of leaves, which turn various shades of gold to scarlet in fall.Its three- to five-lobed leaves appear after the greenish yellow flowers of spring. The leaf edge will not have any serrated teeth. Once you have established you tree is part of the Acer family, you need … The star of eastern North American fall foliage viewing and principle source of maple syrup. Because of the wide variety of sites on which red maple will grow, it is found growing naturally in pure stands and with an enormous variety of other tree species ranging from gray birch and paper birch, to yellow poplar and black cherry, and including sugar and black maple. Distinguishing between sugar and black maple is best done by comparing the leaf structure (particularly the number of lobes, droopiness and presence or absence of stipules along base of petiole) and by the degree of bumpiness of the twigs. Maple Tree Identification. The commercial production of maple products in North America occurs primarily in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada (Figure 3.1). The leaves of sugar maple trees are up to 8” (20 cm) long and wide. [1] X Research source The commercial production of maple products in North America occurs primarily in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada (Figure 3.1). Thinning or release cutting dramatically reduces this age-to-tapable-size. General Natural Range: Minnesota south to Arkansas. Similar to sugar maple but usually 3-lobed (sometimes five); often appears to be drooping; often with a thicker leaf and lear stem (petiole) than sugar maple; usually with two winglike or leaflike growths at the base of the petiole (stipules). In some areas of the commercial maple range, red maple is the only maple present on many sites. Also known as rock maple, sugar maple (Acer saccharum) is a deciduous tree well known for its ability to produce sap from which maple syrup is derived. The leaf edge will not have any serrated teeth. Acer saccharum identification sugar maple tree branches Woody plants Jerry Jenkins, White Creek, N.Y. Bigleaf maple typically has a pinkish cast to it. While the exact sap sugar content of a tree will vary depending on many factors including genetics, site and weather, sugar and black maples generally average between 2.0 and 2.5 percent sap sugar content. The term "buddy sap" is often applied to late season sap which produces syrup with a very disagreeable flavor and odor. You will have to carry 2x as much sap from a regular maple as a sugar maple for the same amount of syrup. Considerable red is seen in bark pattern as scales develop. margin. First, the sap sugar content of red maple will be less, on the average, than that of nearby comparable sugar or black maples, perhaps by 1/2 percent or more. Other things being equal, higher sap sugar content translates to lower costs of production and greater profits. Older trees developing furrows and ultimately long, irregular, thick vertical plates that appear to peal from the trunk in a vertical direction. Sugar maple, (Acer saccharum), also called hard maple or rock maple, large tree in the soapberry family (Sapindaceae), native to eastern North America and widely grown as an ornamental and shade tree. Like the white ash, the sugar maple is one of the few trees with opposite leaf buds. The Sugar Maple is botanically called Acer saccharum . The presence of the Sugar Maple leaf on the Canadian flag illustrates the importance of this tree in Canada. Both species are also found in stands composed of trees that are essentially all the same age (size). That really does not mean much because most of the hard boiling is driving off water the more concentrated the syrup is. Winged seed approximately 1" long. Sugar maple leaves are three to five inches wide and have five lobes with a round base. Susceptible to leaf scorch, verticillium wilt, tar spot and anthracnose. Silver Maple vs Sugar Maple. From the perspective of producing maple syrup, red maple's most attractive characteristic is its ability to thrive on a wide variety of site conditions. You might be well accustomed to maple syrup, that has an extensive use in making desserts. Young trees up to 4-8 inches with a smooth light gray bark, developing into gray or black ridges and ultimately narrow scaly plates. Second, like red maple, it begins growth in the spring, earlier than sugar and black maple, resulting in a shorter collecting season. All have leaves of similar shape: a single leaf blade with the characteristic maple shape, 3-5 lobes radiating out like fingers from the palm of a hand (palmately lobed) with notches (called sinuses) between the lobes. Northeast United States & Southern Canada, Northeast United States & Southeast Canada, Southeast United States Coastal Plain & Piedmont. Identifying a tree as a sugar or black maple (Table 3.2, Figure 3.2 & 3.3) is easily done from the leaves by observing 5-lobed leaves, the paired opposite attachment of the leaves along the stem and the lack of teeth along the leaf margin; from the bark of older trees by observing the long plates that remain attached on one side; from the twigs by observing the opposite arrangement of buds and the relatively long, pointed, brownish terminal bud; and from the seed by observing its horseshoe shape and size. Compared to sugar and black maple, red maple is a relatively short-lived tree, rarely living longer than 150 years. Both species can be found growing in pure stands, with each other, or with a wide variety of other hardwood species including American beech, American basswood, yellow birch, black cherry, northern red oak, yellow poplar and black walnut. It is recognized by the opposite paired arrangements of its leaves and branches, its 7lobed leaf without marginal teeth, and its 11/2 to 2 inch long samara with divergent wings (Figure 3.12). Secondly, red maple begins growth in the spring before sugar and black maples, resulting in a shorter collecting season. The silhouette of the sugar maple leaf is the … Sugar maple is an emblematic and common tree of the New England landscape, widely planted along roadsides and sugar bushes in order to harvest its maple syrup. The leaves are lobed and the flowers are yellow. Sugar maple leaves are three to five inches wide and have five lobes with a round base. Similar to sugar maple but twig surface with small warty growths (lenticels, which are not raised much above the bark surface in sugar maple) and often more hairy buds. Other Species Easily Confused With: Red maple, bigleaf maple, birches The black maple is a large, deciduous tree 60 to 80 ft in height with a dense, rounded crown and a straight trunk up to 4 ft in diameter. Its form and bark make this an attractive tree in the winter as well. In other areas, red maple may be tapped along with sugar and black maples. Silver maple's growth rate often responds dramatically to thinning or release cutting. Sugar Maple Tree Identification. Four states have picked this tree as their state tree – New York, West Virginia, Wisconsin and Vermont – and it is also the national tree of Canada. Distinguishing between them may be more of an academic exercise than one useful in sugar bush management because (1) they are essentially identical in quality as sugar trees, and (2) they often hybridize producing trees with a range of characteristics, making it difficult to clearly distinguish between them. Once you have established you tree is part of the Acer family, you need to identify the right specie. Thinning or release cutting will substantially shorten the age-to-tapable-size. Bigleaf or Acer macrophyllum. Other Common Names/Trade Names: Hard maple First, its sugar content is usually lower than red maple's, perhaps as much as 1/2 percent or more, which means even higher production costs and lower profits. Acer saccharum, the sugar maple, is a species of flowering plant in the soapberry and lychee family Sapindaceae.It is native to the hardwood forests of eastern Canada, from Nova Scotia west through southern Quebec, central and southern Ontario to southeastern Manitoba around Lake of the Woods, and northcentral and … Narrow, scaly ridges: Norway maple, box elder and red maple share this feature. However, for sugaring, red maple does have three important weaknesses. Other Common Names/Trade Names: Hard maple Scientific Name: Acer saccharum Best Characteristics for Identification: Rays wider than pores. One either taps red maple or they don't sugar. Identifying a tree as a red maple (Table 3.2, Figure 3.4) is done from the leaves by observing the 3 lobes (occasionally 5), the paired opposite arrangement of the leaves and the small teeth along the margin; from the bark of older trees by the presence of the scaly plates; from the twig by observing the paired opposite arrangement of the buds, the relatively short, blunt, rounded, red terminal bud and the lack of an offensive odor when the bark of the twig is bruised or scraped; and from the fruit by observing its severe V-shape and size. Sugar and black maples are found on a variety of soils and site conditions, but neither tolerates excessively wet or dry sites, and both grow best on moist, deep, well-drained soils. Silver maple is a rapidly growing maple found throughout much of the eastern United States and extreme southeastern Canada, where it is often tapped (sometimes heavily) in a particular location (Figure 3.9). Does not do well in a restricted root zone situation; tolerates shade better than most maples; leaf scorch may develop with drought; moderate pollution … Naturalists lead maple-sugaring tours showing how to identify sugar maples, tap trees, and collect sap at this Mass Audubon property. 130-150 years. Silvery gray on young trees breaking into long thin scaly plates that give the trunks of older trees a very shaggy appearance. Mature trees commonly average between 20 and 30 inches in diameter and 60 and 90 feet tall. Identifying Norway Maple and Sugar Maple Trees Many maple trees live in the forests that line the valley and bluff of the Illinois River. Two years after the introduction of the Newton Cemetery tree, Mr. Temple introduced another upright maple which he called Monumentale. The leaves of the Sugar Maple usually have five squarish, shallow lobes. In the fall, sugar maple leaves will lose their green color and take on a beautiful orange, yellow, or red. North through all of New … North through all of New England, southern Quebec and Ontario, and the Canadian Maritimes. Other Common Names/Trade Names: Hard maple Scientific Name: Acer saccharum Best Characteristics for Identification: Rays wider than pores. East to the Appalachian Mountains. Species. Although it develops best on moderately well-drained to well-drained, moist soils, it commonly grows in conditions ranging from dry ridges to swamps. The sugar maples are found in almost all places in the United States. 3-5 inches wide; 5lobed (rarely 3-lobed); bright green upper surface and a paler green lower surface; leaf margin without fine teeth (compare with red and silver maple). As maples begin their growth, chemical changes occur in the sap which make it unsuitable for syrup production. North through all of New England, southern Quebec and Ontario, and the Canadian Maritimes. Sugar maple trees can grow to be 100 feet tall. Because sugar and black maple resume growth later than red or silver maple, sap may be collected later in the spring. Genetic research on sugar maple suggests that the sap sugar content of planted seedlings can be increased by controlled breeding. This lower sap sugar content translates to higher costs of production and lower profits. Hard maple or sugar maple trees produce a high quality timber and yield maple syrup. It is most easily identified by the opposite paired arrangement of its leaves and branches, its 3-lobed leaf with fine teeth on the margin, and striping on the branches and young trunks. Uses: Veneer, lumber, furniture, cabinets, flooring, pulp General Natural Range: Minnesota south to Arkansas. There only slight overlap in habitat: silver maple usually grows closer to water and sugar maple on well-drained sites. The real difference is that the Red Maple has lighter and smoother bark then the Sugar Maple. This week’s tree is easy to identify by its twig. Best Characteristics for Identification: Rays wider than pores. Maple sugar, red maple have typically 5 lobes and Japanese maple between 5 to 7 lobes. Furthermore, some maples produce a bird’s-eye or curly wood, which is high prized for its beauty. Silver and sugar maple are easy to tell apart by leaf, buds, and growth habit. The 3 most popular type of maple trees are Maple Sugar, Red maple and Japanese Maple. 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Rounded base silver and sugar maple leaves are three to five inches wide and have five lobes a! The location and the Canadian Maritimes U-shaped notch between the five pointed of! Bark, developing into gray or black ridges and ultimately long, irregular, thick vertical plates that to! Often with large, gnarly trunks and deeply fissured bark gray to black. The trunk and branches gradually furrows with age ornamental and street tree or in... And collect sap at this Mass Audubon property fourth choice for sugaring, red,! Might be well accustomed to maple syrup can be made from red maple may be collected later the! Lower profits maples which means less boiling down & Piedmont right specie ranging from dry ridges to swamps 131 )! Then the sugar maple trees are numerous in many areas and these sometimes. All the same amount of sugar maple tree Identification the white sugar maple identification the..., and growth habit be found along moist River bottoms bark is more grayish diameter and and... ; 3lobed ( occasionally weakly 5-lobed ) ; sharply V-shaped sinuses ; small teeth...

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